Building a CSS-in-JS library from scratch

April 8th, 2021

CSS-in-JS libraries are popping up all over the place at the moment. They are a really powerful way to style apps but how do they actually work?. In this post we are going to build our own CSS-in-JS library.

Before we dig in it is worth saying that if you are looking for a CSS-in-JS solution, you should probably use one of the existing libraries out there rather then building your own as they are well tested with more functionality. Let's dive in.

We are going to create a simple css-in-js library that follows the 'styled' API made popular by styled-components. We will only focus on basic functionality so we won't be looking at things like server side rendering or browser prefixing. Most CSS-in-JS libraries work by taking style definitions, generating class names for them and injecting them inside of a style tag in the document head. So let's start by creating this style tag.

const style = document.createElement("style");

We can now attach any CSS rules we want to this style tag using the CSSStyleSheet insertRule method. We can also make use of the cssRules method to ensure we are always adding the rule to the end of the list by providing the list length as the index we want to insert the rule at.

style.sheet.insertRule(".red { color: red; }", style.sheet.cssRules.length);

You can read more about the CSSStyleSheet interface here.

Next thing we need is a function that will take a CSS rule, generate a className, insert a new rule into our style tag and return the generated class name for us to use in our components. For our use case, we can simply using the index to create a unique class name, instead of doing any kind of hashing like most libraries do.

function css(styles) {
const index = style.sheet.cssRules.length;
const className = `css-${index}`;
const rule = `.${className} { ${styles} }`;
style.sheet.insertRule(rule, index);
return className;

Now we can use our css function to generate class names that we can provide to our components.

function Example() {
const className = css("color: red;");
return <div className={className}>This is an example</div>;

That's great and all but it's far from the API that we want to have. We want to be able to define components using the popular "styled" API like this.

const Example = styled("div")`
color: red;

In order to achieve this we need to take a quick detour to explore tagged template literals. First we need to know what a template literal is. A template literal is a type of string that allows you to interpolate values inside of them. e.g

const color = "red";
const rule = `color: ${color};`;

A tagged template literal is a special way of parsing a template literal with a function. This function will be called with an array of all of the string parts as well as any variables provided.

function greet(strings, ...args) {
console.log("strings: ", strings);
console.log("args: ", args);
const name = "Thomas";
greet`My name is ${name}!`;
// strings: ["My name is", "!"]
// args: ["Thomas"]

Now that we know a template literal can be tagged with a function, we can revisit out css-in-js implementation to achieve the API we want. We need to create a styled function that takes the type of dom element we want to render and returns a function that we can then use as a tagged template literal to create our react component. Let's keep things simple to start with and just take the styles that we pass in as is so that we can focus on getting the API we want.

function styled(tag) {
return function styledTemplate(rules) {
return function Component(props) {
// remember that tagged template literals give us the string parts as an
// array so for now we just pass the first element of the array which will
// be the entire CSS rule because we aren't passing any variables.
const className = css(rules[0]);
return React.createElement(tag, { className, ...props });

😦 I know, that's a lot of functions returning functions. Let's walk through it. The styled function returns the styledTemplate function. The styledTemplate function is similar to our greet function from earlier. We call it as a tagged template literal. This then returns the react component which we can render. So with all of this in place we can do do the following.

const Header = styled("h1")`
font-size: 24px;
font-weight: 600;
<Header>This is a header</Header>

So this is finaly starting to look like the styled-components API we wanted. But what about things like adapting styles based on component props? Let's say we wanted our Header component to change color based on a color prop as well as allowing the background-color to be customized with a bg prop. For that we need to revisit how we are treating the tagged template literal. Remember how our greet function was given a second array of all of the variables passed into the template literal? Well we can also pass functions into the template literal, which we can then call will out component props at render time. 🤯 Let's create a new function that will process the string literal and any functions we provide it into a single CSS rule.

function resolveRule(parts, args, props) {
return parts.reduce((output, part, index) => {
if (index === rules.length - 1) {
return output + part;
return output + part + args[index](props);

With this function we only have one thing left to do which is to update our styled function to make use of it.

function styled(tag) {
return function styledTemplate(rules, ...args) {
return function Component(props) {
const resolved = resolveRule(rules, args, props);
const className = css(resolved);
return React.createElement(tag, { className, ...props });

And there we have it! Our very own CSS-in-JS library.

const Header = styled("h1")`
font-size: 24px;
font-weight: 600;
color: ${(props) => props.color || "black"};
background-color: ${(props) => || "transparent"};

Further Reading